top of page
All Page.png

Common Symptoms

Common Symptoms

Vomiting and Diarrhoea

Vomiting and Diarrhoea



Diarrhoea could be due to viral, bacterial and parasite infection. Diarrhoea can cause dehydration and electolyte disturbance.


Cause of Diarrhoea


Food poisoning

It will cause acute diarrhoea after ingestion of dirty food.



Due to poor absorption and indigestion.


Irritable bowel syndrome

It could be aggregated by emotional disturbance


Treatment of Diarrhoea


Rehydration and supportive treatment is the main treatment.


Prevention of diarrhoea


Avoid eating dirty food.




Vomiting is a symptoms, it could be due to:


Emontional disburance


Food poisoning




After riding on a boat and ship


Fever is a symptom. Fever is part of your immune system, in respond to infection or inflammation.


Causes of Fever


Heat stroke




Treatment of fever


Find the cause of fever, and treat the cause.


Increase fluid intake




Take antipyretic medication


What is a headache?

Common headaches can be divided into tension headaches, migraine headaches and neuralgia headaches. Headaches are sometimes warning signs from the body, so if you have an unexplained headache, you should see your doctor right away.

Tension headache:

Tension headache is one of the most common types of headaches. It is very common to experience headaches due to stress from a fast pace of life, a competitive work and study environment, and tense interpersonal relationships.



The most common disorder of the nervous system, also known as vascular headache, is a recurring throbbing headache syndrome. Migraine commonly occurs in people who are overactive or emotionally troubled. When the blood flow increases, the patient becomes ill.

Neuropathic Headache:

It is the greater occipital neuralgia in the back of the neck. When the attack is severe, the patient will feel restless and unable to sleep, and any painkillers cannot be effectively relieved.

There is a way to relieve headaches

  • Massage the forehead and temples for ten minutes.

  • Turn your head, let your neck relax, and shrug your shoulders.

  • If massage doesn't help, try taking a pain reliever, such as aspirin. (but don't overdose)


Dizziness and fainting

Dizziness and fainting are often confused, but there is a difference between the two. When dizziness occurs, there is a feeling that the surrounding scenery is spinning and there is a shaky feeling but when a person passes out usually suddenly feels dizzy, cold, nauseous, sweating, weak, has a racing heart, then loses consciousness and falls over , while fainting usually lasts only a few minutes.

Causes of dizziness and fainting

  • The blood pressure suddenly drops and the blood supply to the brain decreases.

  • Circulation problems or taking blood pressure medicines.

  • Diabetic patients inject too much insulin, making blood sugar too low

  • Heat stroke, strenuous exercise

  • anemia

  • feeling scared or nervous

  • standing up too fast


Dizziness and fainting treatments

Keep your head down when you suddenly get dark in front of you or feel like you are about to pass out. Lie on your back with your legs elevated to allow the blood to slowly return to your heart. If you cannot lie down, lean forward slightly and bury your head between your knees. If dizziness and fainting symptoms persist for weeks or months, there may be a serious neurological disorder. Because dizziness and balance problems can have multiple causes, a thorough medical history and multiple physical examinations are often necessary to arrive at a precise diagnosis.


Cough Cough is a common symptom of respiratory diseases, with the help of coughing, secretions or foreign bodies in the respiratory tract can be excreted. In addition, coughing is also a physiological response to stimulation of the throat, trachea, and bronchi.
dry cough

Cough without sputum, common in acute pharyngitis or laryngitis, early bronchitis, pleurisy, early tuberculosis, smoking and neurological factors.
Wet cough Cough with sputum, common in chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, lung abscess, pulmonary edema, cavitary tuberculosis.
Causes of cough:

  • Too much fluid in the bronchi.

  • Breathing in dust, pollen and other pollutants.

  • Food or liquid has entered the windpipe.

  • Caused by diseases such as colds, bronchitis, asthma, allergies or lung cancer.

  • smoking.
    Cough treatment:
    When the cough lasts for too long, or is accompanied by other symptoms, such as fever, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, etc., it is important to see a doctor.
    How to prevent cough:
    Usually drink more warm water; if the water is not enough, the phlegm will not come out. do not smoke. Avoid exposure to dusty and polluted places and wear a mask if necessary.

stomach ache

vomiting and abdominal pain

Abdominal pain is a very common clinical symptom. There are many causes of abdominal pain, which can involve various systems of the body. Therefore, it is very important for medical staff to correctly diagnose the cause of abdominal pain.

Abdominal pain is a symptom of a wide range and complex nature. In addition to the location of abdominal pain, other accompanying symptoms can also be of great help in correct diagnosis. If accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and bowel obstruction, it may be an intestinal infarction.


  • After drinking milk or eating dairy products, you will experience abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, persistent bowel sounds, diarrhea, and nausea. May be lactose intolerance Dairy products can cause gastrointestinal sensitivity, such as: fresh milk, ice cream.

  • Epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, hiccups, flatulence, chest tightness or upper abdominal discomfort from stomach problems. Possibly gastritis

    Immediate treatment of abdominal pain

    • should rest more

    • If pain persists or worsens, or has other accompanying symptoms, a doctor should be consulted as soon as possible to identify the underlying cause.

In terms of vomiting, the time of vomiting and the color of the vomit are helpful for diagnosis.

In terms of treatment, it is mainly to identify and cure the cause

Painful urination

Painful urination

Painful urination may be caused by an infection, most commonly bacterial and viral infections. However, based on the difference in the structure of the urethra, women are often more prone to urethritis, because women's urethra is shorter and men's urethra is longer. And when they start having sex, women have a relatively higher chance of developing urinary tract infections. But women can be cured if they are thirsty and pay attention to personal hygiene. On the contrary, once men have symptoms of painful urination, they must do a detailed examination to determine whether they have sexually transmitted diseases, kidney stones and benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Analysis of symptoms of painful urination

  • Painful urination, low volume of urination, weak urine flow when urinating, and occurs in older adults,   may be an enlarged prostate. When the prostate enlarges, the prostate presses against the urethra, slowing the flow of urine and increasing urgency.

  • Painful urination and soreness in the lower back and red urine may cause kidney stones.

  • Increased frequency of urination, painful urination, rapid urine flow, most of which are urinary tract infections.

  • Painful urination after sexual intercourse may indicate honeymoon cystitis.

Immediate treatment of painful urination

After going to the toilet, wipe with toilet paper from front to back and drink a lot of water, which is like washing the bladder, and relieves it before and after intercourse, which can reduce the risk of honeymoon cystitis.

Although some diseases tend to have specific symptoms, such as urethritis or cystitis, patients often experience red and painful urination, it is recommended that you
It's best to seek medical attention as soon as possible and not jump to judgment.

The diagnosis of painful urination can be further confirmed by the following tests, including  

  • Urine tests, bacterial cultures in urine

  • urethral discharge test

  • Prostate cancer antigen index in blood

  • The highest urine flow rate, which can check whether the urinary outlet is blocked and whether the bladder is degenerated.

  • Cystoscopy can view urinary tract obstruction and mucosal abnormalities

  • Ultrasound can diagnose prostate lesions and tumors

  • X-rays to check for kidney stones and calcifications


Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs that prevents the lungs from functioning properly

Pneumonia classification
1. Infectious pneumonia: The lungs are attacked by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc., and can be divided into the following two categories:
(I) Community-acquired pneumonia—that is, pneumonia acquired in the community.
(II) Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia - Refers to hospital-acquired pneumonia. Because the hospital often has patients in and out, and the bacteria in the hospital are relatively more and stronger, the bacteria of hospital-acquired pneumonia are also stronger than those of community-acquired pneumonia.

2. Non-infectious pneumonia: Aspiration pneumonia caused by inhalation of chemicals, toxic gases, etc. by sick people or people with weakened immune systems.

Pneumonia symptoms · Difficulty and shortness of breath · Chest pain when coughing · Muscle pain · Cough · Fever · Diagnosis of phlegm pneumonia
1. X-ray inspection
  The texture of the lungs is thickened, and the two lungs have reticulated shadows.
2. Blood tests
  White blood cell count and increased neutrophils.
3. Serological tests
  Albumin less than 30.0g/DL
4. Auscultation
  Characteristic murmur in the lungs.

Pneumonia treatment Antibiotic treatment Coughing up as much phlegm as possible Get plenty of rest Keep the room ventilated



Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa and intestinal mucosa, mainly caused by viral infection or food poisoning.

gastroenteritis symptoms

  • Vomit

  • diarrhea

  • Abdominal cramps and cramps

  • fever

  • sweat


gastroenteritis treatment

Antibiotics are not effective for viral gastroenteritis. Generally, patients will get better on their own within 24-48 hours. During the period of illness, patients can refer to the following suggestions to reduce physical discomfort:

  • Rest more

  • Drink plenty of water to prevent your body from dehydration

  • antiemetic

  • Antidiarrheal

  • Eat more liquid foods in the first 24 hours


Urine with normal bleeding should be pale yellow, clear and transparent, and should not be foul if not fragrant. If one day, you find that your pee turns red..., be careful! This is a serious warning sign, please make an appointment to see your urologist.


Hematuria, or bleeding in the urine, can be roughly divided into:

Urine bleeding visible to the naked eye:
Hematuria that can also be seen with the naked eye is generally more serious. Common causes include tumors of the urinary system, such as bladder cancer, kidney cancer, etc.

Bleeding in urine only detected by urinalysis:
Common in glomerular inflammation, or kidney stones. However, sometimes because of the small amount of bleeding, the naked eye may not be able to distinguish.

Anyone with urine bleeding, especially those over 40 years old, should report to Dr. Xin as soon as possible for a detailed examination.


When you suspect that you have hematuria, the first check you need is a routine urine test. After confirmation of hematuria, the most important examination is to use an endoscope to directly examine the patient's "lower urinary system", that is, the bladder, prostate (male), and urethra. Modern cystoscopes are very soft and thin. Combined with mild sedative drugs and local anesthesia, most patients do not know themselves after the examination.


During cystoscopy, the urologist can see the inside of the patient's urinary system directly on the TV screen. There is no tumor, bladder stone or other problems, all at a glance. Where there is doubt, biopsy samples can be taken at the same time for further analysis. If bladder and urethral problems are ruled out, the chance of cancer in the "upper urinary system" (ie kidneys and ureters) is ruled out. The method of inspection is computer scanning. In fact, the chances of developing cancer of the urinary system before the age of 40 are not high. If the hematuria is accompanied by painful urination or even fever, we also need to rule out the possibility of urinary tract infection. The method is very simple. Just before taking antibiotics, take a urine sample from the middle section and send it to the doctor for bacterial culture. The culprit of the disease can be found, and then the right medicine can be prescribed. Modern people pay attention to health and understand that prevention is better than cure and the truth of traditional Chinese medicine. So don't forget to include a urine test and pay attention to the presence of red blood cells in your urine during your next physical examination.

Helicobacter pylori

Gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori Humans are the only host of Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter pylori can quickly penetrate the gastric upper mucus layer from the strongly acidic gastric lumen and reach the neutral environment on the surface of gastric epithelial cells. In addition, Helicobacter pylori is rich in urease, which can decompose the urea infiltrated by gastric epithelial cells and turn urea into ammonia to neutralize gastric acid. has its pathogenicity.

Gastrointestinal diseases associated with H. pylori are as follows:

(1) Chronic gastritis
    Chronic gastritis is generally divided into type A gastritis (Autoimmune), type B gastritis (Bacteria, type C gastritis (Chemical, such as bile, drugs, alcohol, etc.) After some people are infected with Helicobacter pylori, although there is no bacteria in the stomach, there are Helicobacter pylori antibodies in the blood, so it is believed that type A gastritis (Autoimmune) is also caused by Helicobacter pylori. Later, due to severe gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, Therefore, Helicobacter pylori could not be found. However, because type A gastritis (Autoimmune) is rare and there are not many studies, it is still not possible to draw conclusions.

(2) Duodenal ulcer
    Almost 100% of patients with duodenal ulcers, with H. ) caused the most. Helicobacter pylori can parasitize on the gastric mucosa of the duodenal bulb, causing duodenitis and eventually ulcers.

(3) gastric ulcer
    About 58-94% of gastric ulcer patients have Helicobacter pylori infection, and patients without Helicobacter pylori infection are mainly due to taking anti-inflammatory non-steroidal pain relievers cause ulcers. The gastritis of gastric ulcer is mainly diffuse gastritis of the whole stomach, especially the lesser curvature of the gastric antrum and gastric body is the most serious and often has gland atrophy and intestinal metaplasia, so the defense ability is too weak, even if the gastric acid is not high, it will cause gastric ulcer, Therefore, after the elimination of Helicobacter pylori, gastric ulcers will heal and not easily recur.

 (4) Gastric adenocarcinoma
    Epidemiological studies have found that areas with a high infection rate of Helicobacter pylori have a high incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma. The study also found that people with gastric adenocarcinoma had a higher rate of Helicobacter pylori infection than those without gastric adenocarcinoma; people with Helicobacter pylori infection had an odds ratio of gastric adenocarcinoma (odds ratio, 2- 7 times, especially the longer the infection time, the higher the oddsratio.


Helicobacter pylori detection method:

  • gastroscopy

  • Insufflation method---Insufflation test after taking "Carbon Thirteen Bacterial Test"

    treatment method:

  • Monotherapy (MONOTHERAPY)
         All antacids, H2-blockers and Sucafate are not germicidal. The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori with bismuth salt (Bismuth) is 7-43%. single antibiotic effect
         The results are not ideal. For example, the eradication rate of Amoxycillin is only 23%, mainly because of its poor bactericidal effect under gastric acid. A single antibiotic is prone to drug resistance, so there is currently no
         advocates monotherapy.

  • Dual therapy
         Previous dual therapy was a bismuth salt plus an antibiotic with ~50% eradication rate slightly better than monotherapy, but Still not ideal.

  • Triple therapy
        Triad therapy is divided into two types, one is bismuth salt plus two antibiotics such as Tetracycline, Amoxicillin. According to the study, there is no difference in eradication rates between two weeks and one week
      (100% vs. 86%), the eradication rate dropped to 78% vs. 70% after one year. The second treatment is the proton pump blocker PPI plus two antibiotics. It only takes one week of treatment.
        The eradication rate can reach more than 90%. Although the sterilization rate of the triple therapy of bismuth salt and the triple therapy of PPI is similar, the side effect of triple therapy of bismuth salt is relatively large.
        PPI triple therapy. The sterilization rate of the triple therapy of PPI is better than that of the dual therapy of PPI, and it only takes one week of treatment.


What exactly is constipation? Constipation is not a matter of the number of bowel movements, but depends on whether the body feels comfortable after a bowel movement. As long as you don't feel a crumbly feeling after a bowel movement, it's not really constipation.

Constipation can be divided into acute constipation

  • Temporary simple constipation due to environmental changes or stressors.

  • Symptomatic constipation due to certain diseases such as intestinal obstruction. chronic constipation

  • Habitual constipation is caused by a decrease in the functioning of the intestines due to factors such as bad habits or stress in life.

  • Symptomatic constipation caused by certain diseases such as bowel cancer.

    The most common is habitual constipation, which can be divided into three types:

  • Rectal constipation: The message of defecation cannot be conveyed to the brain due to excessive suppression of bowel movements or frequent use of enemas.

  • Spasmodic constipation: The functioning of the intestines is too sensitive, causing intestinal spasms; constipation and diarrhea occur repeatedly, which is one of the symptoms of allergic intestinal syndrome.

  • Flaccid constipation: It is common in the elderly or people with insufficient exercise. It turns out that the abdominal muscles are weak, which makes the intestines less peristaltic.


Causes of constipation:

  • There is a problem with the eating method, such as: irregular eating time, skipping breakfast, eating too little, partial eclipse.

  • Not getting enough water.

  • Irregular living, or not getting enough exercise.

  • Chronic stress can lead to disturbances in the functioning of the bowel.

Even if you think you have habitual constipation, you should also consider whether it is caused by a certain disease. If you have any doubts, you need to find a doctor for examination and treatment. Most of the patients who seek medical attention for constipation are women and senior citizens aged 25-35 and 45-55. This phenomenon is caused by the influence of female hormones and the weakness of the abdominal muscles.  

Treatment of constipation:

  • establish a regular life
    a.           A glass of water or milk, which can activate the peristaltic function of the intestines.
    b.          Eat a balanced breakfast every day.
    c.          Do gymnastics before waking up to stimulate bowel movements.
    d.         Make it a habit to go to the toilet before going out.

  • changing eating habits
    a.          Eat lactobacillus food every day to increase probiotics to regulate the environment in the intestines.
    b.           Eating more foods such as garlic and apples can promote the increase of probiotics and intestinal peristalsis.
    c.          Be sure to drink plenty of fluids as much as possible.
    d.          Fat has the effect of making stools slide smoothly, and moderate fat is necessary to solve constipation.
    e.           Increasing dietary fiber can increase the weight of feces, stimulate intestinal activity, increase beneficial bacteria, and excrete harmful substances in the intestines.
    Different types of fiber should be taken with different types of constipation. The so-called dietary fiber is the component in the food that will not be digested by the body even after eating.

Dietary fiber can be divided into two types: water-soluble or insoluble:
a.       Water-soluble -- can absorb water, increase the amount of stool after swelling, suitable for relaxation People with sexual constipation problems. For example: vegetables, grains, legumes, root vegetables
b.      Non-water-soluble - has the effect of increasing the number of beneficial bacteria in the body, suitable for people with spastic constipation problems . For example: fruit, konjac, seaweed, shiitake mushrooms

Although constipation is a very common urban disease, don't ignore the diseases that constipation may cause by thinking "it's just constipation, it's not a big problem". In addition to causing abdominal bloating and making people feel uncomfortable, constipation also makes people feel uncomfortable. Deteriorated skin is more likely to lead to colorectal cancer or polyps. Therefore, do not ignore the constipation problem. If in doubt, seek medical attention as soon as possible for further treatment.


Coming Soon

stomach ache
Painful urination
Helicobacter pylori
Anchor 1
Anchor 2
Anchor 3
Anchor 4
bottom of page